Naomi Wolf admits blunder over Victorians and sodomy executions

Death sentences in 1800s were hardly ever carried out, despite claim in authors book Outrages

It was only published this week, but already the writer Naomi Wolf has admitted an error at the heart of her latest book. Instead of being actually executed for sodomy in 1859, as the writer claims in Outrages, Thomas Silver was apparently paroled two years after being convicted.


Latest Discounts
  • Are you frustrated that your expensive karoke player does not let you play.
  • Download the latest official drivers for your PC fix driver problems and keep them updated.
  • Scans your computer for missing, corrupt, or outdated Windows Drivers.
  • Quickly cure your acid reflux and enjoy permanent freedom from heartburn
  • Learn how to make wonderful smelling candles that put expensive candles sold in stores.
  • Put small animated peel image at the top corner right or left on webpage
  • Discover How To Add 20lbs To Your Bench Press, 15lbs To Deadlift, And 20lbs To Your Squat In 3 Months
  • Discover How Your Beliefs and Emotions Affect Your Ability To Achieve All Your Goals And Dreams.
  • Become A Certified Usui Reiki Healing Master With The Latest Reiki Certification Program.
  • A complete guide for you to lose weight, reduce lupus, autism, diabetes, etc..
  • Packed full of the info you need for profitable horse racing
  • Learn about the solar systems largest planet jupiter predict great red spot transit times
  • ApeSurvival is all about survival and self-defense products, tips and news.
  • Discover how to boost your goal achieving skills in 30 days, guaranteed
  • This Affiliate System Will Have You Raking In Massive Commissions From Affiliate Marketing.
  • Learn how you can easily create mobile apps to generate passive income.
  • Discover One Weird Trick That Forces Your Body To Eliminate Hemorrhoids In 48 Hours
  • Helps You To Lose Weight In Just Four Weeks Without Strict Dieting And Exercise.
  • Clickbank Ads
     

    Silver, who was 14 when he was convicted, is just one of several cases cited in the book but, according to the writer and broadcaster Matthew Sweet, the error stems from a simple misreading of a historical record and raises wider questions about the argument Wolf puts forward.

    In Outrages, which was published by Virago, Wolf examines the effect of 19th-century legal changes on the lives of Victorian poets such as John Addington Symonds and argues that the Obscene Publications Act of 1857 marked a turning point in the treatment of gay people.

    Outrages
    Outrages. Photograph: No credit

    People widely believe that the last executions for sodomy were in 1830, Wolf told the Observer. But I read every Old Bailey record throughout the 19th century, so I know that not only did they continue; they got worse.

    According to Sweet, who first challenged Wolf on Radio 3s Arts and Ideas, her error concerning Silver stems from a misunderstanding of the very precise historical legal term, death recorded, as evidence of execution, when in fact it indicates the opposite.

    The historian Richard Ward agreed, adding that the term was a legal device first introduced in 1823. It empowered the trial judge to abstain from formally pronouncing a sentence of death upon a capital convict in cases where the judge intended to recommend the offender for a pardon from the death sentence. In the vast majority (almost certainly all) of the cases marked death recorded, the offender would not have been executed.


     

    Wolf has committed a pretty basic error, Ward added. If all the people who were mentioned in the Old Bailey records as death recorded were subsequently executed, there would have been a bloodbath on the gallows, Ward said, yet anyone who has a basic knowledge of crime and justice in the 19th century would know that that wasnt the case.

    While Wolf only quotes the death recorded verdict in Silvers case, Sweet challenges the wider argument put forward in Outrages.

    I think her assumptions about death recorded have led her to the view that dozens and dozens of Victorian men were executed, and that one of the main subjects of her book, the poet John Addington Symonds, grew up with the fear of execution hanging over his head. I have yet to see evidence that one man in Victorian Britain was executed for sodomy.

    Wolfs argument that 1857 saw a brutal turn against consensual sex between men runs counter to most scholars, Sweet continued, who suggest that it was only in 1885 that a less tolerant legal climate developed. She argues that historians have misread this moment and we should see that 1857 was a more significant date. I think she is wrong.

    Wolf said she appreciated Sweets important correction, but rejected the idea that it challenged the main thrust of her book. Outrages doesnt purport to be a comprehensive database of eventual sentences served for sodomy, she explained. Its focus is on the reception of news about laws and sentences by a group of friends, as well as eventual arrests of friends of Symonds.


    Latest Discounts
  • Are you frustrated that your expensive karoke player does not let you play.
  • Change Your Mind, Change Your Life Influence Your Mind and Others.
  • Helps You To Lose Weight In Just Four Weeks Without Strict Dieting And Exercise.
  • Discover how to boost your goal achieving skills in 30 days, guaranteed
  • The stunning secret of turning your wife on with the push of a button.
  • ApeSurvival is all about survival and self-defense products, tips and news.
  • The Best RSS Autoblog Tool For Blogger Blogspot Blog.
  • Discover How To Add 20lbs To Your Bench Press, 15lbs To Deadlift, And 20lbs To Your Squat In 3 Months
  • Learn How To Attract the Man of Your Dreams And Receive A Marriage Proposal In Few Months
  • A complete guide for you to lose weight, reduce lupus, autism, diabetes, etc..
  • Learn how to make wonderful smelling candles that put expensive candles sold in stores.
  • This Affiliate System Will Have You Raking In Massive Commissions From Affiliate Marketing.
  • A Truly Unique Extract Of The Greatest Methodologies For Keeping The Body And Mind Young And Agile.
  • The scientifically proven way of adding inches of real height at any age.
  • Put small animated peel image at the top corner right or left on webpage
  • Dont Let Social Anxiety Control Your Life Any Longer. Start Living.
  • Clickbank Ads
     

    The book tells the story of how Symonds absorbed information about increasingly long sentences of hard labour and reports of death sentences in the national media, Wolf said. I dont think it takes many reports of a death sentence for a 14-year-old for sodomy, though later commuted, to really scare a 19-year-old gay man. This fear is the focus of my book.

    Wolf says she corrected the error right away, and asked my publishers to include the correction in the book; and I thanked Dr Sweet both one to one and in public.

    Original Article : HERE ; The Ultimate Survival Food: The Lost Ways

     


    RELATED PRODUCTS
  • Are you frustrated that your expensive karoke player does not let you play.
  • Know how to eliminate bacterial vaginosis forever in 72 hour.
  • Quickly cure your acid reflux and enjoy permanent freedom from heartburn
  • Dont Let Social Anxiety Control Your Life Any Longer. Start Living.
  • Discover how to boost your goal achieving skills in 30 days, guaranteed
  • Discover A Habit Busting Program Gives You The Ability You Have Always Wanted.
  • Learn How To Attract the Man of Your Dreams And Receive A Marriage Proposal In Few Months
  • Change Your Mind, Change Your Life Influence Your Mind and Others.
  • Helps You To Lose Weight In Just Four Weeks Without Strict Dieting And Exercise.
  • Scans your computer for missing, corrupt, or outdated Windows Drivers.
  • Put small animated peel image at the top corner right or left on webpage
  • Discover How Your Beliefs and Emotions Affect Your Ability To Achieve All Your Goals And Dreams.
  • Download the latest official drivers for your PC fix driver problems and keep them updated.
  • Clickbank Ads